There is a growing demand around the world for natural gas as a fuel. This clean fuel is available only in certain regions and the Middle East is one of these areas. But the biggest natural gas consumers – such as Europe and the Far East – are located far away from the production areas. Therefore, it is economically important to transport natural gas. Just like air around us, natural gas in its normal state occupies a large area.
However, it must be sent in large quantities in order to be economically feasible. It can be sent to customers in its natural form via pipelines, but providing pipelines to clients who are located thousands of kilometers away from the production sites is not a practical nor economic matter, but there is another way. If natural gas is cooled to 160 degrees Celsius below zero, it becomes liquid and in its liquid form, its volume is reduced 600 times, making it possible to transport huge amounts of gas in petrol tankers and to be shipped to clients around the world.
How to store liquefied gas
Liquefied naturel gas tankers are built with two walls with an effective largely insulation between the walls. These huge tankers are characterized by low (aspect ratio) and a cylindrical design with a roof in a dome shape.
Theses tankers have very low degree of storage pressure, less than 5 degrees(psig). There is the possibility of storing small amounts like for example 70,000 gallons and less in horizontal or vertical tanks with compressed air vacuum. These tanks can be anywhere under pressure less than 5 ° (psig) to more than 250 degrees (psig).
We must conserve the coolness of liquefied natural gas (84 degrees Fahrenheit below zero, at least) in order to remain it liquid, and independent of pressure.
How coldness is maintained?
Whatever is the effectiveness of the insulation process, it cannot maintain by its own the degree of coolness of the liquefied natural gas.
Liquefied naturel gas is saved as a “coolant in boiling point” which is a very cold liquid at its boiling point in the pressure of its conservation. And stored liquefied naturel gas is analogous to boiling water except that its coolness is higher by 260 ° C only.
The degree of boiling water, equivalent to 100 ° C does not change at all despite of the increasing heat which is due to cooling that results from the evaporation process (steam generation). In the same way, it will almost remain liquefied natural gas at a constant temperature if it will be kept in a fixed pressure. This phenomenon is called the “self-cooling” and remain a constant temperature as long as it allows the vapor of liquefied natural gas to leave the tea kettle (reservoir).
And If there is no withdrawal of steam it will raise the temperature inside the bowl. Even when the degree of pressure is 100 (psig), the degree of liquefied natural gas heat will be approximately 129 degrees Fahrenheit under zero.
What is the best way to transport liquefied natural gas in pipes without being freezed?
There are 1,000 meters long pipes (thousand meters) in which liquefied naturel gas must be transported, but the fear is from the accumulation of frozen parts on its outer wall so What is the correct way to transport the liquefied gas in these pipes? Shall we isolate pipes? what is the type of its thickness? And can we pump through a normal pump? stay tuned in the next article………
The liquefied petroleum gas is part of the group of light hydrocarbons which are called (liquid gas), it is a mixture of equal percentages of propane (C3 H8) and butane (C4 H10) with a tiny amount of other hydrocarbon materials, its marketing in the world began in 1912
Natural gas comes out from gas wells and consists of methane by 90% and propane by 5% and a mixture of other gases by 5%, including butane and ethane. Propane and butane are extracted from natural gas and then are being mixed together in equal proportion, Propane and butane are separated in specific refineries and the output of the remaining gases are used in factories in form of natural gas. The gas can be extracted of crude oil refining, where more than 3% of the components of a barrel of crude oil is a LPC.
Its Properties Odor, color:
LPG is odorless and colorless. To detect it, a substance of pungent smell is added to know it when there is a leakage.
LPG is not toxic, but it is suffocating when air is saturated with it.
depends on the mixing ratio which is equivalent to 0.55 g / cm 3 approximately, and in the gaseous state it is twice heavier than air, causing its accumulation in low places.
Choosing LPG for getting thermal energy is a good healthy solution as it keeps the environment from pollution due to the lack of clear waste from its burning, at the same time it gives an excellent amount of energy, and has multiple uses. Including its usage in homes for cooking or heating, or heating water in swimming pools, it also has industrial use in smelting and electroplating, thermal dryers and bakery ovens. Also it is used in compressed cans (Aersol) such as pesticides, insecticides and air fresheners, also in agricultural it is used in heating greenhouses and poultry farms, chicken hatcheries and their cabins. Finally, there are some countries which use vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas.
The periodic maintenance of the central gas network protects you from the risks and protect your family and your property from harmful effects. So “Eshrak El Ryadah” dedicated herself to spread awareness among liquefied gas users about all the instructions on how to choose the appropriate piping, organizations, gas leak detectors, and how its regular maintenance work. This gas is also known as cooking gas.
Stop lighting fire or running Lighting key or closing it in case of gas leak inside the home or the facility which may occur due to poor maintenance or safety and security guidelines negligence. So (Eshrak El Ryadah) provided all means of safety and protections measures in dealing with the risk of leakage, and provided to their customers (the leak gas detector and its fuse (which closes the source of gas automatically in case of gas leak inside the home or facility.
The availability of safety tools in its appropriate place, contribute effectively to reduce risks that may occur due to negligence of the periodic maintenance of gas network, or their regulators, their valves, and their own leaks detectors, so (Eshrak El Ryadah) provided to her customers (fire extinguishers (for free as a kind of loyal gesture for their side, and contributing in the protection of their property and their families – God willing -.
Periodic examination of the central gas network protects you from the risk of leakage and consequent loss of money caused by a gas leak without your knowledge whether the infusion was from the internal pipes or from the regulators that may be damaged due to the customer negligence of regular maintenance.