يعتبر الغاز الطبيعي واحداً من أهم أنواع الثروات الطبيعية على الإطلاق، حيث يعتبر واحداً من أهم مصادر الطاقة التي يحتاجها الإنسان صبح مساء، وعلى مدار الساعة من أجل سد احتياجاته المختلفة. عرف الغاز الطبيعي لدى مختلف الحضارات السابقة، حيث كان يستعمل لدى كل حضارة من هذه الحضارات لغرض معين من الأغراض، فعلى سبيل المثال استعمله الصينيون من أجل استخراج الملح من البحار، أما حديثاً فقد استعمل الغاز الطبيعي بطريقة فيها نوع من التنظيم ولأول مرّة من قبل المملكة المتحدة، حيث استعمل بشكل رئيسي في إنارة الشوارع وإضاءتها وقد كان ذلك في العام ألف وسبعمئة وخمسة وثمانين للميلاد، ثم لحقتها بعض دول القارة الأوروبية إلى جانب الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية.
فوائد الغاز الطبيعي
يدخل الغاز الطبيعي كأحد أهم المواد المستعملة في العديد من المجالات الرئيسية والحيوية كطهي الطعام، وتشغيل المصانع، والتدفئة، والتسخين الماء، وتكييف الهواء. يوفّر دخلاً مادياً ثابتاً ومرتفعاً، فهو أكثر اقتصاداً من بعض أنواع الوقود البديل. يعتبر من أكثر مصادر الطاقة أماناً إذا ما قارناه بمصادر الطاقة الأخرى. يساعد على استدامة واستمرارية عمل المنشأة التي تعتمد عليه في عملها، وذلك يعود إلى أن الغاز الطبيعي يتم توزيعه من خلال شبكات توزيع خاصة قادرة على إمداد المنشآت المختلفة بكميات الغاز التي تحتاجها وبشكل مستمر دون انقطاع أو توقف، كما ساعدت طريقة النقل هذه على التقليل من التلوث السمعي الضوضائي، فالنقل يتم من خلال شبكات خاصة مدفونة تحت سطح الأرض. يساعد في تقليل التلوث البيئي، وذلك لكونه من المصادر النظيفة الصديقة للبيئة. يساعد على توفير الكميات، واستغلالها كاملة دون وجود فاقد، وذلك يعود إلى الدقة اللامتناهية في عدادات الغاز المستعملة.
Gas plant in Wasit, one of Aramco projects which will be witnessed by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques during his visit to the eastern regionmohamed / 0 Comments /
This day the Company “Aramco” Reviewed 5 of her mega projects, which the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques ‘‘King Salman bin Abdul Aziz’’ will launch and inaugurate their expansions during his current visit to the eastern region. Aramco company spoke about each project and showed its advantages, the projects of its expansions and production, challenges, conditions of its launch and its functioning.
Projects reviewed by “Aramco” included: King Abdul Aziz Center for World Culture “Ethraa”, the giant Kharis project, “Manifa “project field, gas plant in Wasit, “Shaybah” project. And in the following all details about the gas plant in Wasit project.
The establishment of a gas plant in Wasit north of Jubail on the Gulf coast of the Kingdom, to handle 2.6 billion cubic feet per day of non – associated gas from “Hasba” and “Arabia” fields in the Arab Gulf.
The project also contains huge facilities which include four units for gas processing, fractioning natural gas liquids and turning them into valuable products for petrochemical factories with a design capacity of 240 thousand barrels per day.
In addition to four units for dual production of electricity and steam with 750 MW capacity to ensure lab self – sufficiency, and to support the company’s other facilities with the surplus of electricity, at a total cost estimated by 9.375 billion riyal.
The “Hsaba” field, which is the supplier for the gas plant in Wasit, contains seven platforms of single well, and it will provide the plant with 1.3 billion standard cubic feet of non – associated gas per day, while the other supplier ,”Arabia” field, contains six wells, and it will supply the gas plant with 1.2 billion standard cubic feet per day, which will empower the plant to process 2.5 billion standard cubic feet of non – associated gas.
Aramco expects that the Wasit plant will provide 1.7 billion standard cubic feet per day of gas allocated for sale, and that this plant along with Karan plant, which was run in 2012, will increase the capacity of gas processing by about 40% in the Kingdom.
3 official parties complete the list of requirements for safety and protection for the transfer and sell of gas.mohamed / 0 Comments /
The incident of gas tanker which took place late December 2012 in the Saudi capital Al-Riyadh has prompted the launch of a study that collected three official parties in the country to adopt a regulation of safety and protection in the liquefied gas transportation between cities, and to identify mechanisms for opening sales centers in residential neighborhoods.
The regulation gave the facilities and shops a time period ranging from six months to a year starting from the time of its issuance to apply the requirements and instructions contained in the regulation, the deadline can be extended for a further one more period. The regulation has also ordered the dedicated department in the municipalities to consider that the license shall be granted or renewed in accordance with what is mentioned in the regulation.
The four chapters of the regulation provide a set of safety requirements and ways of protection that should be available in stores that sell and store the cylinders of petroleum liquefied gas and the means of their delivery. It did not include a prevention of the movement of tankers carrying gas inside and outside the cities, in addition to limiting the condition of opening selling and storing shops of gas cylinders only at a distance of 25 meters away from public places without banning it in residential neighborhoods.
According to the regulation, from which the «Middle East» has received a copy, Article III approved that the technical offices specialized in safety regulations and industrial safety and which are approved by the General Directorate of Civil Defense, have the responsibility of license withdrawal for any error or negligence.
The Regulation dedicated an entire chapter in relation to the shops of distribution and storage of petroleum liquefied gas cylinder, having the first article about the site and the building, conditions that must be met in the place prepared for storage and sale of liquefied petroleum gas cylinder.
The second paragraph of first Article set the condition of keeping stores that sell, distribute and store gas cylinders at a distance of 25 meters away from all public places such as mosques, hotels, cafes and restaurants, as well as places that use flame sources ovens, boilers, and keep the shops at a distance of not less than 10 meters from any flammable materials.
The regulation has imposed the approval of all the components of the building which are made from non-combustible and fire resistant material for at least two hours, also the shop must consist of a ground floor that is independent and opposite to wide streets and roads allowing the passage and the arrival of the cars carrying gas cylinders and large car fire, The regulation also prevents the storage of the cylinders and the establishment of any facilities or activities below this floor or above .
And it stipulated that the shop site should meet the requirements of the license, according to municipal requirements and other relevant authorities and civil defense without exposure to the rest of the licensing requirements that are specific to other authorities, and necessitated the municipality to verify the consent of the concerned authorities before giving a license.
The regulation has also considered that the Safety officer is in charge of making monthly checkups and periodic tests every three months, for the building of the establishment or the shop and all fixtures and equipment, mechanical and electrical machinery, as well as all means of safety and fire equipment, He is in charge of surveillance and warning and the immediate repair of any malfunction or defect, considering any negligence or in this area, a gross one.
Under the terms of the regulations, the civil defense committees have the right within the limits of its regional specialization to exempt the establishments or shops along the external roads, and completely which are isolated from urbanization and buildings of one or more of the conditions set out in this case after studying each case separately.
As for the cylinders’ storage, the regulation limited it to the inside of the shop and blocked it outside, preventing the fill of cylinders or lighting devices in the selling shops
Also prevented the entry of members of the public to the storage areas, or use it as a place for living or as a residence for workers or others at the same time bounding the civil gas company to deliver the liquefied gas cylinders except for licensed shops, and to unify the liquefied petroleum gas cylinders’ paint in orange.
With respect to the technical aspects, the regulation dealt with safety requirements whether related to natural ventilation through windows, vents and doors so that to be sufficient to renew the air in the shops of liquefied gas cylinder distribution on a continuous basis or mechanical ventilation, including wiring and electrical installations and means of lighting, with the condition of compliance with the Saudi technical specifications.
The Regulation identified the amount of gas reserve in the shop within 2000 kg, and it’s not allowed more than that except with special permission from the gas company, and after the approval of the civil defense in case the shop location, area and distribution power permit.
Regulation showed that the total area of cylinder storage is specified with 35 square centimeters per gas cylinder empty or packed, to be divided among the cylinders inside the shop, with separation between packaged and empty cylinders inside the shop.
With respect to the handling and distribution, the regulation necessitated the distribution workers to install gas cylinders, retrieve the empty ones, and to make sure of the absence of any hazard in the places where gas cylinders are used, bounding the license holder to extract bills for sold cylinder, so the buyer is able to return it if there are any defects with it .
The regulation also determined the type of fire-fighting equipment in the stations of gas cylinders distribution as it approved to provide those stores with a number of multi-purpose chemical fire extinguishing dry in accordance to the shop space, and the amount of cylinders stored it
It also called the store to be equipped with a number of fire-hose reels at a rate of one reel per 100 meters square, and on condition that the delivery of those pulleys will be through public water supply, or through water tank equipped with a pressure machine .
The second chapter is about the transfer of liquefied gas cylinders from filling plants to shops by equipped trucks that belong to Saudi National Gas Company, included nearly twenty paragraph to determine the technical requirements to be met by means of transport, which included the ban of parking vehicles transporting gas cylinders in the public streets except in allocated period to download or upload cylinders in distribution shops.
It also added not to endanger the cylinder for any shocks during loading or downloading even if empty, and that the car brakes should be strong, healthy and sound, its equipment should be checked on a permanent basis, and to perform detection and technical examination before each trip
As for the driving speed , paragraph 17 stipulates «the driver has to conform to the limits of the average speed limit and not to exceed it.»
The regulation addressed the issue of tanks ddesignated for transportation of liquefied petroleum gas from the packing locations to homes or other establishments , in only one paragraph , which stipulates: «Never allow the transfer of LPG from packing sites to fill gas tanks, except by car tanks allocated for this purpose and which are owned by the Gas and Manufacturing National Co. «GASCO» These vehicles should conform to the international specifications and requirements », with the application of safety requirements contained in transfer of gas cylinders.
It considered the civil gas company responsible for the quality of liquefied petroleum gas that is packed in the cylinders and its conformity with the Saudi standard specifications, the company also should be committed to the prescribed gas quantities for each type of cylinder, and that the cylinders and its valves conform to the Saudi specifications and standards.
The regulations required from the responsible for safety to allocate a register called (safety register), according to the form prepared by the General Directorate of Civil Defense, all its pages should be stamped by the corresponding center of Civil Defense. The registry should include all periodic examinations and monthly tests for the equipment , means of safety and fire extinguishing , methods used in the examination and the results of breakdowns and repairs , the record will be at the disposal of the civil defense delegate at all times to review it.
It authorized the responsible of safety to inform the civil defense center about the date of conducting periodic tests of the devices and the means of safety and fire extinguishing, and in order to agree on a suitable date for the civil defense delegate to attend the tests and prove it in the registry.
in the third chapter, the regulation also allowed the installation of LPG tanks by technical specialized companies according to international standards, this business is currently running in Saudi Arabia by the civil company of gas and manufacturing.
And it stipulated the allocation of a separate building constructed from fire-resistant materials, with the roof made from light inflammable elements so it can be easily separated at the time of the explosion or removed without affecting the walls ,It also prevents the installation of reservoirs within or above the used buildings, and that the company concerned by the installation would be responsible for maintenance and regulated periodic checkups on reservoirs, connections and valves with the help of specialized technicians
In the fourth chapter ,the regulation mentioned the precautions that should be taken in case of gas leakage, it stipulated the strict prevention of all heat sources from leakage areas by suppressing any burning materials and preventing smoking and stopping all that may exist from driving forces, or machines or mechanical and electrical motors and not to use the phones in place of leakage, for the fear of a short circuit, leading to the burning of the leaking gas as it is preferred to use the another phone from somewhere else to report about the incidence .
The regulation has stressed on the closure of the gas sources whenever possible, while confirming the need to notify the Civil Defense immediately in case of identifying the occurrence of gas leakage, with an emphasis on the separation of the power supply as a precautionary measure, in addition to the evacuation of the leaking area.
In the fourth chapter, the regulation has emphasized the importance of supporting civil defense units and all units of public services through the provision of assistance and information needed to direct those devices to face leakage accident, by selecting the closing sources and controlling the incident.
It is to mention that the gas tanker incident in the capital Riyadh, was due to the hitting of the tanker against one of the bridges along the road east of the city, resulting in a gas leakage, which led to an explosion that caused the damage of a number equipment and cars that were adjacent to the site , also resulted in traffic accidents which caused 24 deaths and injured 133 others, according to statistics announced by the government agencies at that time.
This incident was the focus of conversations that dominated the social and media circles, which called for a re-reading of the safety and security protection means for the transport of liquefied gas resources between cities and within residential neighborhoods, which prompted many of whom are interested in public affairs to invite government agencies and the private sector to review the means of safety and to detect imbalance in protection to the local Centers of gas distribution and sale.